Zinc and the Eye
Bruce H. Grahn, DVM, Phyllis G. Paterson, PhD, Katherine T. Gottschall-Pass, PhD, and Zhen Zhang, MSc
Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine B.H.G.), College of Pharmacy and Nutrition (P.G.P., Z.Z.), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Department of Family and Nutritional Sciences, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island (K.T.G.-P.), CANADA [Bruce.Grahn@usask.ca]
Zinc, a trace element that influences cell metabolism through a variety of mechanisms, appears to play an integral role in maintaining normal ocular function. This element is present in high concentrations in ocular tissue, particularly in retina and choroid. Zinc deficiency has been shown in a number of species to result in a variety of gross, ultrastructural and electrophysiologic ocular manifestations. The physiological functions for zinc have been studied predominantly in retina and retinal pigment epithelium where zinc is believed to interact with taurine and vitamin A, modify photoreceptor plasma membranes, regulate the light-rhodopsin reaction, modulate synaptic transmission and serve as an antioxidant. Suboptimal zinc status in North America may influence the development and progression of several chronic eye diseases. Zinc supplementation trials and epidemiological studies have produced conflicting results concerning the role of zinc in age-related macular degeneration. Additional well-controlled supplementation trials are indicated to clarify the role of zinc in this disease. Future investigations must also expand our understanding of the mechanisms by which zinc regulates ocular morphology and function.