The Effect of Vitamin E and Vitamin C Supplementation on LDL Oxidizability and Neutrophil Respiratory Burst in Young Smokers
Cindy J. Fuller, PhD, RD, Margaret A. May, MSN, MS, RD, and Karla J. Martin, MS
Department of Nutrition & Foodservice Systems, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina [firstname.lastname@example.org]
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin E and/or vitamin C supplementation on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidizability and neutrophil (PMN) superoxide anion production in young smokers.
Methods: Thirty smokers with a <5 pack-year history were randomly assigned to take placebo; vitamin C (1 g/day); vitamin E (400 IU/day); or both vitamins in a double-blind fashion. Subjects took the supplements for 8 weeks. At weeks 0 and 8, blood was collected for isolation of LDL and PMN, and for antioxidant vitamin analysis. LDL was oxidized with a copper (Cu) catalyst, and oxidation was measured by formation of conjugated dienes over a 5-hour time course. Lag times and maximum oxidation rates were calculated from the time course data. PMN superoxide anion release was assessed by respiratory burst after stimulation with phorbol ester and opsonized zymosan, and their ability to oxidize autologous LDL following treatment with the above stimuli was measured with the conjugated diene assay.
Results: Subjects who received vitamin E alone had a significant increase in the lag phase of Cu-catalyzed LDL oxidation (week 0, 118 ± 31 min vs. week 8, 193 ± 80 min, mean ± SD, p < 0.05), whereas the vitamin C and placebo groups had no changes in LDL oxidation kinetics. The group receiving both vitamins E and C had a significant reduction in oxidation rate (week 0, 7.4 ± 2.3 vs. week 8, 5.1 ± 2.l, p < 0.05). There were no significant changes for any group in PMN superoxide anion production or PMN LDL oxidation after stimulation with either phorbol ester or opsonized zymosan. Plasma and LDL vitamin E concentrations were significantly increased in both groups that received vitamin E. The subjects who received vitamin C alone had no significant change in plasma vitamin C concentrations; however, when data were pooled from both groups who received vitamin C, the increases were significant.
Conclusion: Vitamin E supplementation of young smokers was effective in reducing Cu-catalyzed LDL oxidizability; however, vitamin E and/or C supplementation showed few significant effects on the more physiologically relevant PMN function. This casts doubt on the ability of antioxidant supplementation to reduce oxidative stress in smokers in vivo. Therefore, smoking cessation remains the only means by which young smokers can prevent premature coronary heart disease.