Use of Subjective Global Assessment to Identify Nutrition-Associated Complications and Death in Geriatric Long-Term Care Facility Residents
Gordon S. Sacks, PharmD, Kaye Dearman, PharmD, William H. Replogle, PhD,Virginia L. Cora, DSN, RNCS, Mark Meeks, MD, Todd Canada, PharmD
Departments of Clinical Pharmacy (G.S.S., K.D.), Family Medicine (W.H.R.),and Medicine (V.L.C., M.M.), The University of Mississippi Jackson, Mississippi, and Department of Pharmacy Services (T.C.), Parkland Memorial Hospital, Dallas, Texas E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Objective: The primary objective of this study was to assess the use of Subjective Global Assessment to identify nutrition-associated complications and death in a geriatric population. A secondary objective was to evaluate the ability of Subjective Global Assessment to identify geriatric residents of long-term care facilities who were undernourished or at risk for developing undernutrition.
Methods: Fifty-three consecutive residents who were 65 years of age and had been residing in a long-term care facility for < 2 weeks were enrolled in the study. The Subjective Global Assessment Classification technique was performed according to the procedure outlined by Detsky and colleagues. Residents were classified as well-nourished (A), mild/moderately undernourished (B) or severely undernourished (C). In addition, a Subjective Global Assessment Composite Score was derived. Subjective Global Assessment measures were compared with two traditional objective measurements of nutritional status: serum albumin and serum total cholesterol. Outcome measurements of nutrition-associated complications were determined over a 3-month period by recording the incidence of major infections, decubitus ulcers, nutrition-related hospital readmissions, and mortality.
Results: Sixteen residents (30.2%) were categorized as Subjective Global Assessment class A, 28 residents (52.8%) were class B, and 9 residents (17%) were class C. A significant association was found between nutritional status as determined by Subjective Global Assessment Composite Score and nutrition-associated complications (p<0.05). Subjective Global Assessment Classification was related to death (p<0.05) with severely undernourished residents having the highest mortality rate. Hypoalbuminemia only demonstrated a significant relationship with nutrition-associated complications (p<0.05), whereas hypocholesterolemia was associated with death (p<0.05).
Conclusions: Subjective Global Assessment of nutritional status appears to be a simple, non-invasive and cost-effective tool for assessing nutritional status of geriatric residents in long-term care facilities. This assessment tool is also beneficial for identifying patients with increased risk of nutrition-associated complications as well as death.