Responses of Plasma Lipoproteins and Sex Hormones to the Consumption of Lean Fish Incorporated in a Prudent-Type Diet in Normolipidemic Men
Brigitte Lacaille, MS, Pierre Julien, PhD, Yves Deshaies, PhD, Charles Lavigne, MS, Louis-D Brun, MD, and Hélène Jacques, PhD
Département des sciences des aliments et de nutrition (B.L., C.L., H.J.); Département de physiologie (Y.D.),Université Laval, Sainte-Foy, Québec; and Centre de recherche sur les maladies lipidiques (P.J., L.-D.B.), Centre Hospitalier de l’Université Laval, Sainte-Foy, Québec, CANADA [firstname.lastname@example.org]
Objective: The effects of lean fish on plasma lipoproteins, postheparin plasma lipolytic activities and sex hormones were examined in 11 normolipidemic male subjects.
Methods: This study was a randomized crossover trial of two isoenergetic prudent-type diets, lean fish diet and beef, pork, veal, eggs and milk (nonfish) diet. Experimental diets provided approximately 11800 kJ – 18% as proteins, 50% as carbohydrates, 32% as lipids [ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids (P:S) of 1:1 compared with 0.5:1 in preexperimental diet], and 260 mg cholesterol/day.
Results: Compared with the nonfish diet, the lean fish diet induced higher plasma total and LDL apolipoprotein (apo) B and apo B:apo A-1 ratio, indicating that the substitution of lean fish for beef, veal, pork, eggs and milk provides little benefits with regard to plasma apo B concentrations in a low-fat high P:S diet. Moreover, triglycerides:apo B and cholesterol:apo B ratios of VLDL were lower following the lean fish diet than the nonfish diet, suggesting the presence of smaller very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles following the consumption of lean fish. Higher plasma concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), HDL2 cholesterol and HDL2:HDL3 cholesterol ratio were found with the lean fish diet compared with the nonfish diet. Negative correlations between plasma postheparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and VLDL triglycerides (n=11, r=-0.53, p=0.02), and between plasma postheparin LPL activity and VLDL triglycerides:apo B ratio (n=11, r=-0.64, p=0.02) were also observed following the lean fish diet.
Conclusion: These results suggest that the effects of substituting lean fish for beef, veal, pork, eggs and milk on plasma lipoproteins may be partly associated with variations in plasma sex hormone status and plasma LPL activity in normolipidemic men.